Égypte/Monde arabe http://ema.revues.org Égypte/Monde arabe. Revue annuelle. Revue de sciences sociales publiée au Caire par le Cedej. Elle s’adresse aussi bien au professionnel de la recherche qu’au public profane en quête de clés de lecture pour comprendre les tensions et les mutations qui travaillent le monde arabe et musulman contemporain et, notamment, l’Égypte. Damiette, une ville prospère d’Égypte au péril de la mondialisation Cet article se donne pour objectif d’éclairer l’évolution économique et sociale d’une ville moyenne d’Égypte, à travers les mutations récentes de son système de production. Il est possible que ce nouvel angle d’approche de la sphère du politique égyptien, à travers ses applications concrètes, ouvre des pistes pour comprendre le fonctionnement ou le dysfonctionnement de l’État, et les frustrations sociales qui en découlent et mettent en cause la légitimité du pouvoir, au point de se cristalliser, parfois, dans le recours à l’action subversive.

Le choix de Damiette n’est pas indifférent : la ville est certes, par sa localisation et son histoire, une exception. Damiette est en effet, depuis l’Antiquité une ville ouverte sur le monde ; elle a en outre bénéficié de ressources locales variées, tirées de l’agriculture et de la pêche. La combinaison de ces facteurs a engendré une citadinité affirmée, autour de producteurs et de commerçants qui ont pu jouir d’une autonomie relative, mais exce...

Marc Lavergne http://ema.revues.org/3626 2016-11-08
Barbara Casciarri, Munzoul Assal and François Ireton, Multidimensional Change in Sudan (1989-2011): Reshaping livelihoods, conflicts and identities This is an essential book to read as a background and springboard for delving into an extremely critical and complex period of modern Sudan (1989-2011), a period that is characterized by major, rapid, and seemingly lasting impact events and changes in the social, political, economic, and cultural fields in the country. The reviewed book poses critical queries at the levels of theory, methodology, ethnography, and empirical reality in an attempt to fathom the present socio-economic dynamics of change in Sudan. Though the book is specifically about the Sudanese case, it is quite clear that it positions itself as a part of a very broad and ambitious project on how we can document, analyse, interpret, and finally understand the processes of social change in general. The book’s excellent introduction captures all these issues eloquently, and informs the readers about how the articles fit into the designated framework of the book.

The introduction points out that the important changes in ...

Idriss El Hassan http://ema.revues.org/3623 2016-11-08
David E. Mills, Dividing the Nile. Egypt’s Economic Nationalists in the Sudan, 1918-56 The “Unity of the Nile Valley” (wahda wadi al-nil), which was the term that evoked a popular political ideology that was widespread in Sudan and Egypt until the 1950s, described a peculiar form of nationalism. Its ideologues did not postulate that Sudan and Egypt were one nation, but that they were two halves that had been unjustly separated but were destined to be reunited. For the Egyptians, sharing the river Nile made Sudan a natural appendix of Egypt, while for many Sudanese, Egypt was a “blood brother” with which they shared a set of fundamental national traits.

This book makes an important contribution to the abundant literature on Sudanese and Egyptian relations in the twentieth century in two ways: first, because it covers a facet– its economic aspects – that has been systematically neglected in studies on nationalism, and second, because it goes much further than any previous research – at least any that is known to this reviewer – on how Egyptian-Sudanese economic relations...

Elena Vezzadini http://ema.revues.org/3622 2016-11-08
Love at the Time of Independence This article explores the way in which romantic love and companionate marriage were debated in Sudan at the time of independence by analysing a small corpus of love stories published in a special column of the left-wing newspaper al-Saraha. I start by contextualizing the left-wing press at a time of tremendous political, economic, and social change in Sudan as a key to understanding the pedagogical mission of al-Saraha. I then describe the various opinions on companionate marriage discussed in these texts and analyse them structurally, highlighting both common patterns and systematic omissions. Finally, I seek to interpret the spread of the ideal of romantic love in Sudan in relation to the theory of the rise of individualism as a sign of a modern State, and to show that the solution these texts proposed was not to disconnect individuals from society, but to reform society as a whole so as to harmonize collective and individual wills.

Elena Vezzadini http://ema.revues.org/3613 2016-11-08
Mover and Shaker: Grace Mary Crowfoot, Intimate Conversations, and Sudanese History The Rationale for This Study
At the fourth annual conference of African studies in France (4èmes Rencontres des Études Africaines en France [REAF]), which revolved around the broad theme of “Cosmopolitical Africas” (Afriques cosmopolitiques), several panellists considered “traces of intimacy” in African history regarding individuals and their modes of oral, literary, and artistic expression. Drawing inspiration from many scholars, including Stoler (2002), who wrote about “cross-racial” relationships in Southeast Asian colonial systems,Goffman (1959), whose sociological analysis of face-to-face “interaction rituals” is now a classic, and more, their aim was to consider close, and often idiosyncratic, exchanges –intimate encounters–in making history. I presented this study on Sudan at this conference and in this context, focusing on Grace Mary Crowfoot, a British polymath and superwoman of her era, and assessing the impact of her informal interactions with Sudanese men and women during...

Heather J. Sharkey http://ema.revues.org/3606 2016-11-08
Dismantling Processes in the Sudanese Public Health Services Sector The idea for this paper was inspired by the discovery of the destruction of Dr Abbo’s Fistula Centre in 2015. Why was this centre of international renown destroyed ? Our assumption was that the decision was related to dismantling processes and liberalization policies in the Sudanese public health services sector. The main sources for our analysis consist of various interviews conducted with health practitioners and stakeholders during February and March 2016.

Alice Koumurian Hind Mahmoud Yousif Hussein http://ema.revues.org/3598 2016-11-08
Hakamat and Peacebuilding 2004-2012 Five years after the secession of South Sudan from Sudan, peace building activities in Sudan have not yet come to an end and violent conflicts in Sudan have not stopped – rather, they intensified – while international attention has shifted to other regions of the world. Darfur remains a crisis region, and the southern, eastern, and western edges of the Sudan are still conflict-ridden, even increasingly so. This article looks into how peacebuilding projects engaged Hakamat – female singers and poets – to spread the message of peace between 2004 and 2012. This international involvement was influenced by two things: the image of Hakamat among the riverine North Sudanese and the international peacebuilding community as `troublemakers´; and the fact that they contradict the image of women as passive victims of violent conflicts. It was for these reasons that the Hakamat became a `hot topic´ with organizations working in Darfur. Although the issue was not prominently reported in the newsp...

Nadine Rea Intisar Adam http://ema.revues.org/3595 2016-11-08
Thriving on chaos: the war in Darfur and the transformation of the authoritarian coalition Authoritarian regimes are often considered to be prone to civil wars because they are fundamentally based on principles of marginalization and coercion. Recent literature on authoritarian resiliency tends nonetheless to consider that regimes that are plagued with violence cannot endure over the long term. Building on an analysis of Omar al-Bashir’s regime in Sudan, this paper explores the relationship between civil wars and the winning coalition, the group of people whose loyalty is necessary for the survival of the regime. It studies the way in which the war in Darfur has been fought, and demonstrates how this has led to changes within the coalition that may contribute to the entrenchment of authoritarianism in Sudan.

Anne-Laure Mahé http://ema.revues.org/3590 2016-11-08
Conflict with Others at a Bleeding Frontier: The Case of Tagoi in the Northeastern Nuba Mountains – Sudan This article looks at the escalating conflict between the Tagoi and Hawazma and their allies over natural resources and political authority in the north-eastern Nuba Mountains, from the Tagoi’s perspective. It explains why and how the Tagoi Area has become a free zone for settlement by the Hawazma and their allies, who have succeeded in developing an independent native administration in the area and have begun to contest the Tagoi’s rights to political authority and land. It illustrates how security concerns associated with the Second Civil War between the government of Sudan (GoS) and the Sudan People’s Liberation Movement/Army (SPLM/A) first and the Sudan/South Sudan international border after the secession of South Sudan in 2011 have contributed to the escalation of this conflict. It also shows how this conflict has recently become entangled with the armed conflict between the GoS and the SPLM/A-North, thus attaining a new dimension.

Osman Mohamed Osman Ali http://ema.revues.org/3634 2016-11-08
Le Grand Khartoum sans Sudistes ? Cet article offre une lecture urbaine et foncière des retours au Sud de résidents « sudistes » de l’agglomération de Khartoum qui font suite à l’Indépendance du Sud. A partir d’un travail de terrain consacré aux transactions immobilières qui affectent le quartier populaire de Mussalass, dans la proche périphérie d’Omdurman, il s’agit d’analyser les stratégies familiales foncières et locatives des populations directement concernées par la séparation du Soudan du Sud de manière à saisir les recompositions à l’œuvre dans les quartiers populaires de la capitale soudanaise, ainsi qu’au sein de la population Sudiste du Grand Khartoum.

Alice Franck http://ema.revues.org/3588 2016-11-08